Course Syllabus

Questions in Architectural History 1

Reinhold Martin

Teaching Fellows: Caitlin Blanchfield, Samuel Stewart-Halevy

ARCH A4348

Wed 11am-1pm

300S Buell Hall

Fall 2018

 

This two-semester introductory course is organized around selected questions and problems that have, over the course of the past two centuries, helped to define architecture’s modernity.

The course treats the history of architectural modernity as a contested, geographically and culturally uncertain category, for which periodization is both necessary and contingent. The fall semester begins with the apotheosis of the European Enlightenment and the early phases of the industrial revolution in the late eighteenth century. From there, it proceeds in a rough chronology through the “long” nineteenth century. Developments in Europe and North America are situated in relation to worldwide processes including trade, imperialism, nationalism, and industrialization. Sequentially, the course considers specific questions and problems that form around differences that are also connections, antitheses that are also interdependencies, and conflicts that are also alliances. The resulting tensions animated architectural discourse and practice throughout the period, and continue to shape our present.

Each week, objects, ideas, and events will move in and out of the European and North American frame, with a strong emphasis on relational thinking and contextualization. This includes a historical, relational understanding of architecture itself. Although the Western tradition had recognized diverse building practices as “architecture” for some time, an understanding of architecture as an academic discipline and as a profession, which still prevails today, was only institutionalized in the European nineteenth century. Thus, what we now call architecture was born not long ago, as a discourse and a practice conceived in relation to others variously described as ancient, vernacular, native, or pre-modern.

The course also treats categories like modernity, modernization, and modernism in a relational manner. Rather than presuppose the equation of modernity with rationality, for example, the course asks: How did such an equation arise? Where? Under what conditions? In response to what? Why? To what end? Similar questions pertain to the idea of a “national” architecture, or even a “modern” one. To explore these and other questions, the course stresses contact with primary sources. In addition to weekly readings, the syllabus lists key buildings, projects, and documents, along with at least one primary text, through which such questions may be posed. Many of these buildings, projects, and texts have long been incorporated into well-developed historical narratives, mostly centered on Europe. Others have not. Our aim, however, is not to replace those narratives with a more inclusive, “global” one. It is to explore questions that arise, at certain times and in certain places, when architecture is said to possess a history.

The course therefore prioritizes discussion and critical reflection. Students will be assigned to one of three seminar-style classes, each led by a different faculty member in collaboration with a teaching assistant. In addition, PhD Teaching Fellows (TFs) will conduct smaller weekly sessions intended to support and elaborate upon the main class. All three course sections will discuss the same primary texts and background reading (from Bayly, The Birth of the Modern World), but with different secondary readings to be assigned at the discretion of individual faculty. Faculty members may present examples of relevant buildings and projects from among those listed at their discretion. 

Overall, the aim is a semester-long dialogue, with active student participation, that unfolds, explores, and contextualizes questions and problems that inform and challenge the historical imagination and ultimately, enhance historical consciousness.

 

Course Requirements

In addition to completing the required readings for each week and participating actively in class discussions, at three points during the semester students will be required to:

Option A

Submit three short essays on a specific topic, as follows:

Essay 1: A close reading of a building discussed in class and/or in a reading (5pp, 12-pt font, approx. 1200-1300 words)

Essay 2: Compare and contrast two key buildings or texts discussed in class or in the readings (5pp, 12-pot font, approx. 1200-1300 words)

Essay 3: A close reading of an assigned text or a text listed on the syllabus (5pp, 12-pt font, approx. 1200-1300 words)

 

Option B (instructor’s approval required)

Submit a full-length research paper on a topic related to one or more of those covered in the course, in consultation with your discussion section TF, as follows:

Part 1: One-paragraph abstract describing the paper topic and a one-page working bibliography

Part 2: Three-page annotated outline of the paper, with bibliography 

Part 3: Final paper, 15 pages minimum, double-spaced in 12 pt font (about 3,500-4,000 words); plus illustrations.

 

Due Dates:

Essay 1 / Part 1: 3 October 2018

Essay 2 / Part 2: 7 November 2018

Essay 3 / Part 3: 12 December 2018

 

All assignments should be uploaded to turnitin.com as MSWord-compatible files (each student will be emailed a link for this at the beginning of the semester).  

 

Grading

Grades for the class will be determined as follows:

 

Option A

Class participation                 25%

Essay 1                                  25%

Essay 2                                   25%

Essay 3                                   25%

 

Option B

Class participation    25%

Paper abstract           5%

Paper outline             10%

Final paper                60%

 

Students with limited experience in writing research papers or writing in academic English are STRONGLY encouraged to seek support at the Columbia College Writing Center:

http://www.college.columbia.edu/core/uwp/writing-center

 

Students should adhere to standard guidelines regarding academic honesty, such as those described in the GSAS Statement on Academic Honesty, available at:

http://www.columbia.edu/cu/gsas/rules/chapter-9/pages/honesty/index.html

 

Course Materials

All students are required to purchase a copy of C.A. Bayly, The Birth of the Modern World 1780-1914 (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004) and are expected to have read the book prior to the beginning of the semester. Specific chapters are recommended for certain weeks, below. Copies are available for purchase at Book Culture (536 West 112th Street between Broadway and Amsterdam Ave.). All other course materials, both required and recommended, are available on the Canvas (formerly Courseworks) website, or elsewhere online if indicated below.

Three types of readings are listed each week: primary (required), secondary (selections to be assigned by instructor), and background (recommended). Secondary materials not assigned by any instructors are available on Canvas as a resource for student research or further reading. At times additional primary materials or background reading are recommended along with the required texts, again as a guide for research or further reading.

Many visual materials related to the course, including all of those listed in the Appendix under “Buildings and Projects,” are collected in an online database maintained by the GSAPP Visual Resource Collection (VRC). These are available only to GSAPP students and faculty through LOGIN. Additional visual materials are available online at Artstor.org.

Students are also advised to consult additional reference texts available in Avery Library, including:

Leonardo Benevolo, History of Modern Architecture, Volume 1: The Tradition of Modern Architecture [1960], trans. H. J. Landry (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1977)

Barry Bergdoll, European Architecture 1750-1890 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000),

Robin Middleton and David Watkin, Neoclassical and Nineteenth Century Architecture Vols. 1 and 2 (Milan: Electa, 1980)

In addition to Bayly, the following texts are also useful for historical background:

Eric Hobsbawm, The Age of Revolution 1789-1848 (Cleveland: World Pub. Co, 1962)

Eric Hobsbawm, The Age of Capital 1848-1875 (New York: Vintage Books, 1996 [1975])

Eric Hobsbawm, The Age of Empire 1875-1914 (New York: Vintage Books, 1989 [1987])

Jürgen Osterhammel, The Transformation of the World: A Global History of the Nineteenth Century, trans. Patrick Camiller (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014)

 

Weekly Topics

 

1. Architecture and History

 

Primary (required)

Jean-Jacques Rousseau, “Discourse on the Origin and Foundations of Inequality Among Men or Second Discourse” [1754], in The Discourses and Other Early Political Writings, trans. Victor Gourevitch (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 161-88.

Marc-Antoine Laugier, An Essay on Architecture [1753], trans. Wolfgang Herrmann and Anni Herrmann (Los Angeles: Hennessey & Ingalls, 1977), 1-38 (esp. 1-14).

 

Secondary (required)

Leonardo Benevolo, History of Modern Architecture, Volume 1: The Tradition of Modern Architecture [1960], trans. H. J. Landry (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1977), “Introduction: Architecture and the Industrial Revolution,” xv-xxxiv.

Dipesh Chakrabarty, “The Climate of History: Four Theses,” Critical Inquiry 35 (Winter 2009): 197-222.

 

Secondary (for reference)

Françoise Choay, “The Consecration Phase: Institutionalization of the Historic Monument, 1820-1960,” The Invention of the Historic Monument, trans. Lauren M. O’Connell (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).

Tapati Guha-Thakurta,. “The Empire and its Antiquities: Two Pioneers and Their Scholarly Fields”, in Monuments, Objects, Histori`es (New York: Columbia University Press, 2004).

Alain Schnapp, “The Invention of Archaeology,” Chapter 5, in The Discovery of the Past (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1997).

Michel Foucault, “The Historical A Priori and the Archive,” The Archaeology of Knowledge, 126-131.

Immanuel Kant, “An Answer to the Question: What Is Enlightenment?” [1784], in What Is Enlightenment? : Eighteenth-Century Answers and Twentieth-Century Questions, ed. James Schmidt (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996), 58-64.

Karl Marx, “The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte,” in The Marx-Engels Reader, ed. Robert C. Tucker (New York: Norton, 1978), 594-617.

Robin Middleton and David Watkin, Neoclassical and Nineteenth Century Architecture Vol. 1 (Milan: Electa, 1980), Chap. 3, “Archaeology and the Influence of the Antique,” 65-103; and Chap. 5, “Visionary Architecture,” 177-207.

John Elsner, “A Collector’s Model of Desire; The House and Museum of Sir John Soane,” in John Elsner and Roger Cardinal (eds.): The Cultures of Collecting. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994.

Mari Lending, “Negotiating Absence: Bernard Tschumi’s new Acropolis Museum in Athens,” The Journal of Architecture, Vol. 14, No. 5, pp. 567-689.

Suzanne L. Marchand, “The Making of a Cultural Obsession,” in Down From Olympus: Archaeology and Philhellenism in Germany, 1750-1970 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996), 3-35.

Andrew McClellan, Inventing the Louvre: Art, Politics, and the Origin of the Modern Museum in Eighteenth-Century Paris (Cambridge, 1994), "The Revolutionary Louvre," 91-123.

Dipesh Chakrabarty, “Introduction: The Idea of Provincializing Europe,” in Provincializing Europe : Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference (Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, 2000).

Susan Buck-Morss, “Hegel and Haiti,” Critical Inquiry 26, no. 4 (2000): 821-65.

Stephen Cairns, “Notes for an Alternative History of the Primitive Hut,” Primitive: Original Matters in Architecture, 86-95

Daniel Bertrand Monk et al., “A Discussion on the Global and Universal,” Grey Room, no. 61 (October 1, 2015): 66–127.

 

Background

C. A. Bayly, The Birth of the Modern World 1780-1914(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004), Chap. 2, “Passages from the Old Regime to Modernity,” 49-83.

 

2. Individual and Society

 

Primary (required)

Jeremy Bentham, "Panopticon, or the Inspection House" [1787], in The Emergence of Modern Architecture, eds. Liane Lefaivre and Alexander Tzonis (London and New York: Routledge, 2004).

Robert Owen, “Essay Two,” New View of Society [1817] (London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown, 1818), 25-60.

Charles Fourier, “The Phalanstery” [1822], The Utopian vision of Charles Fourier, eds. Jonathan Beecher and Richard Bienvenu (Boston: Beacon Press, 1971).

 

Secondary (required)

Michel Foucault, “Panopticism,” in Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, trans. Alan Sheridan (New York: Vintage Books, 1979), 195-228.

Robin Evans, “Bentham’s Panopticon: An Incident in the Social History of Architecture,” Architectural Association Quarterly 3 (Spring 1971): 21-37.

 

Secondary (for reference)

Robin Middleton, “Sickness, Madness and Crime as the Grounds of Form”, Parts 1 and 2 in AA Files, No. 24, Autumn 1992 and No. 25, Summer 1993.

Osama W. Abi-Mershed, Apostles of Modernity: Saint Simonians and the Civilizing Mission in Algeria (Stanford, CA; Stanford University Press, 2010).

Dolores Hayden, Chap. 2, “Socialism in Modern Villages,” The Grand Domestic Revolution: A History of Feminist Designs for American Homes, Neighborhoods and Cities (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981), 32-53.

Osama W. Abi-Mershed, Apostles of Modernity: Saint Simonians and the Civilizing Mission in Algeria (Stanford, CA; Stanford University Press, 2010).

Robin Evans, “Figures, Doors and Passages,” Architectural Design 48, no. 4 (1978), 267-278.

Nicholas Bullock and James Read, The Movement for Housing Reform in Germany and France, 1840-1914 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985) SELECTIONS TBD

Barry Bergdoll, European Architecture 1750-1890 (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), Chap. 3, “Experimental Architecture: Landscape Gardens and Reform Institutions."

Dana Simmons, "Social Reform," The Vital Minimum: Need, Science, and Politics in Modern France (Chicago: University of Chicago, 2015).

 

Background

C.A. Bayly, The Birth of the Modern World 1780-1914(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004), Chap. 8, “The Theory and Practice of Liberalism, Rationalism, Socialism, and Science,” 284-324.

 

3. Race and Nation

 

Primary (required)

Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia [1787], (Richmond, VA: J.W. Randolph, 1853), Query 1, “Boundaries of Virginia,” 1-2; Query 8, “Population,” 90-96; Query 14, “Laws,” 140-160; Query 15, “Colleges, Buildings, and Roads,” 161-165.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, "On German Architecture," [1772] in Art History and its Methods, ed. Eric Fernie (London: Phaidon Press, 1995), 77-84.

 

Secondary (required)

Irene Cheng, “Race and Architectural Geometry: Thomas Jefferson’s Octagons,” The Journal of Nineteenth-Century Americanists 3, no. 1 (2015): 121-30.

Kurt Forster, "Schinkel's Panoramic Planning of Central Berlin," Modulus 16 (New York: Rizzoli, 1983), 63-77.

 

Secondary (for reference)

Carl Anthony, “The Big House and the Slave Quarters: Part I, Prelude to New World Architecture,” in Landscape, Vol. 20, Number 3, Spring 1976. pp.8-19.

Carl Anthony, “The Big House and the Slave Quarters: Part II, African Contributions to the New World,” in Landscape, Vol. 21, Number 1, Autumn 1976. pp.9-15.

Louis P. Nelson, Chap. 8 “Architectures of Freedom” and Chap. 9 “Building in Britain,” Architecture and Empire in Jamaica, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2016), 219–67.

Spillers, Hortense: “Mama’s Baby, Papa’s Maybe; An American Grammar Book,” Diacritics 17, no. 2 (Summer 1987).

Simon Gikandi, Culture of Taste, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014), Chap. 3, "Unspeakable Events: Slavery and White Self-Fashioning,” 97-144.

David Bindman, Ape to Apollo: Aesthetics and the Idea of Race in the Eighteenth Century, (London: Reaktion Books, 2002), “Introduction: Human Variety, Race and Aesthetics,” 11-21.

Dorothea E. Von Mücke, “Beyond the Paradigm of Representation: Goethe on Architecture,” Grey Room 35 (Spring 2009): 6-27.

Zeynep Çelik, “A New Monumentality and an Official Architecture,” Empire, Architecture, and the City: French-Ottoman Encounters 1830-1914, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2008), 159-215.

Kenrick Ian Grandison, “Negotiated Space: The Black College Campus as a Cultural Record of Postbellum America,” American Quarterly 51, no. 3 (September 1999).

Gwendolyn Wright, Building the Dream: A Social History of Housing in America (New York: Pantheon, 1981), Chap. 3, “The ‘Big House’ and the Slave Quarters.”

Barry Bergdoll, European Architecture 1750-1890 (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), Chap. 4, “Revolutionary Architecture,” and Chap. 5, “Nationalism and Stylistic Debates in Architecture.”

 

Background

C.A. Bayly, The Birth of the Modern World 1780-1914(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004), Chap. 3, "Converging Revolutions 1780-1820," 86-120. 

 

3A. Special Session: Avery Classics (Rare Books)

Thursday 20 September 2018

Avery Library visits staggered 2:00-5:00

Students will view rare primary documents from the period in small groups in Avery Library, to be organized by the TFs. A list of these documents will be distributed prior to the session. The visits will be preceded by a brief introduction with Avery Classics librarians.

 

4. Institution and Classification

 

Primary (required)

Antoine-Chrysostome Quatremère de Quincy, “Type” [1825], Oppositions 8 (Spring 1977): 95-115.

J.N.L. Durand, “Summary of Courses Offered at the École Polytechnique” [1802-1805], in A Documentary History of Art, Vol. III, ed. Holt (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1966), 199-212.


Secondary (required)

Richard Chaffee, “The Teaching of Architecture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts,” in Ecole des Beaux-Arts, ed. Arthur Drexler (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1977), 61-109.

Werner Szambien, “Architectural Drawings at the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris at the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century," Daidalos 11 (March 1984): 55-64.

 

Secondary (for reference)

Georges Teyssot, A Topology of Everyday Constellations (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2013), Chapter 2, “Figuring the Invisible,” 31-82.

Vittoria Di Palma, “Architecture, Environment, and Emotion: Quatremère de Quincy and the Concept of Character,” AA Files 47 (2002): 45-56.

Andrew McClellan, Inventing the Louvre: Art, Politics, and the Origin of the Modern Museum in Eighteenth-Century Paris (Cambridge, 1994), "The Revolutionary Louvre," 91-123.

David Van Zanten, Building Paris: Architectural Institutions and the Transformation of the French Capital 1830-1870 (1994). SELECTIONS TBD

Neil Levine, “The Romantic Ideal of Architectural Legibility: Henri Labrouste and the Neo-Grec,” in Ecole des Beaux-Arts, ed. Drexler, (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1977), 325-416.

Carla Yanni, “Divine Display or Secular Science: Defining Nature at the Natural History Museum in London,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 55, No. 3 (Sep., 1996): 276-299.

 

Background (recommended)

Jürgen Osterhammel, The Transformation of the World: A Global History of the Nineteenth Century, trans. Patrick Camiller (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014), Chap. XVI, “Knowledge: Growth, Concentration, Distribution,” 779-825.

 

5. Nature and Resource

 

Primary (required)

François Quesnay, “The Physiocratic Formula” [1758], The Enlightenment Reader (New York: Penguin, 1995), 496-502.

(skim) Alexander von Humboldt, Cosmos: A Sketch of a Physical Description of the Universe, Vol. 1 [orig. 1845] trans. E.C. Otté (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1864), 1-15; 363-369.

https://archive.org/details/bub_gb_Tn3WyvMI_d4C

 

Secondary (required)

Vittoria Di Palma, “Wilderness, Wasteland, Garden,” Wasteland: A History (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2014), 230-244.

Norton Wise, “Architectures for Steam” in The Architecture of Science, ed. Peter Galison and Emily Thompson (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999), 107-140.

Andreas Malm, Fossil Capital: The Rise of Steam Power and the Roots of Global Warming (New York: Verso, 2016), Chap. 3, “The Long Life of the Flow: Industrial Energy before Coal,” 37-57.

 

Secondary (for reference)

Allen S. Weiss, “Vaux-le-Vicomte, Anamorphosis Abscondita,” in Mirrors of Infinity: The French Formal Garden and 17th Century Metaphysics (Princeton: Princeton Architectural Press, 1995).

Ann Bermingham, “System, Order and Abstraction: The Politics of English Landscape Drawing around 1795,” Chapter 3 in W. J. T. Mitchell (ed.), Landscape and Power (Chicago: University of Chicago Press), 1994.

The History of Garden Design: The Western Tradition from the Renaissance to the Present Day, eds. Georges Teyssot and Monique Mosser (London: Thames and Hudson, 1991). [Selections]

Louis P. Nelson, Architecture and Empire in Jamaica (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2016) Chap. 4, “Plantation and Power,”, 219–67.

Mike Davis, “Preface,” Late Victorian Holocausts: El Niño Famines and the Making of the Third World (New York and London: Verso, 2001), 1-16.

Anson Rabinbach, “Transcendental Materialism: The Primacy of Arbeitskraft,” The Human Motor: Energy, Fatigue, and the Origins of Modernity (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1990), 45-68.

 

Background

C. A. Bayly, The Birth of the Modern World 1780-1914(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004), Chap. 12, “The Destruction of Native Peoples and Ecological Depradation,” 432-450.

 

6. City and Territory

 

Primary (required)

Benjamin Henry Latrobe, The Journal of Latrobe: Being the Notes and Sketches of an Architect, Naturalist and Traveler in the United States from 1796 to 1820 (New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1905), “Louisiana Limitations,” 225-245.

Frederick Law Olmsted, Public Parks and the Enlargement of Towns (Cambridge, MA: American Social Science Association, 1870), 1-36.

 

Secondary (required)

Leonardo Benevolo, History of Modern Architecture, Volume 1: The Tradition of Modern Architecture [1960], trans. H. J. Landry (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1977), Section 1, “Birth and Development of the Industrial Town,” 1-124.

Swati Chattopadhay, The Limits of ‘White Town’ in Colonial Calcutta,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (June 2000), 154-179.

 

Secondary (for reference)

Francesco Dal Co, “From Parks to the Region: Progressive Ideology and the Reform of the American City”, in Giorgio Ciucci et al. The American City: From the Civil War to the New Deal (London: Granada, 1980).

Aaron Sachs, The Humboldt Current: Nineteenth Century Exploration and the Roots of American Environmentalism (New York: Viking Books, 2006).

William Cronon, Nature’s Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West (New York: W.W. Norton, 1991), Chap. 3, “Pricing the Future: Grain,” 97-147.

Antoine Picon, “Chapter 9: A productive countryside” and “Gaspard Riche de Prony (1755-1839),” in French Architects and Engineers in the Age of Enlightenment, trans. Martin Thom (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 211-255, 349-353.

Walter Johnson, “Introduction: Boom,” River of Dark Dreams, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2013), 1-17.

Michel Foucault, Security, Territory, Population: Lectures at the Collège de France 1977-1978, trans. Graham Burchell (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004), “Lecture One: 11 January 1978,” “Lecture Two: 18 January 1978,” and “Lecture Three: 25 January 1978”, 1-86.

Anthony Vidler, “Scenes of the Street” in On Streets, ed. Stanford Anderson (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1978), 29-51.

Françoise Choay, “Pre-Urbanism and Urbanism: The Progressist Model,” in The Modern City (New York: G. Braziller, 1970), 31-102

Barry Bergdoll, European Architecture 1750-1890 (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), Chap. 2, “What is Enlightenment? The City and the Public, 1750-89.”

 

7. Culture and Style

 

Primary (required)

Rām Rāz, Essay on the Architecture of the Hindus [1834] (London: J.W. Parker, 1834), 1-40.

Heinrich Hübsch, In What Style Should We Build? [1828] (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992), 63-85.

(skim/browse) Owen Jones, The Grammar of Ornament (London: Day and Son, 1856)

https://archive.org/details/grammarofornamen00joneuoft

 

Secondary (required)

Crinson, Mark. Empire Building: Orientalism and Victorian Architecture, Chap. 1: “Useful Knowledge: Interpreting Islamic Architecture, 1700-1840,” 15-36.

Madhuri Desai, Interpreting an Architectural Past: Ram Raz and the Treatise in South Asia,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (Dec 2012), 426-487.

 

Secondary (for reference)

Barbara Whitney Keyser, “Ornament as Idea; Indirect Imitation of Nature in the Design Reform Movement,” in Journal of Design History, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1998.

Gülru Necipoğlu, “Ornamentalism and Orientalism: The Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century European Literature,” Chapter 4 in The Topkapi Scroll - Geometry and Ornament in Islamic Architecture (Santa Monica: The Getty Center for the History of Art and Humanities, 1995).

Bergdoll, Barry. European Architecture 1750-1890 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), Chap. 5, “Nationalism and Stylistic Debates in Architecture,” 138-170.

Mark Jarzombek, “The ‘Kunstgewerbe,’ the ‘Werkbund,’ and the Aesthetics of Culture in the Wilhelmine Period,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 53, no. 1 (March 1994): 7-19.

Martin Berger, “Museum Architecture and Imperialism of Whiteness,” Sight Unseen (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005) 81-121.

Wolfgang Hermann, “Introduction” to Heinrich Hübsch, In What Style Should We Build? The German Debate on Architectural Style (Santa Monica: Getty Center, 1992), 1-60.

Deborah L. Silverman, “Art Nouveau, Art of Darkness: African Lineages of Belgian Modernism,” Part I, West 86th, 18, no. 2 (Fall-Winter 2011): 139-181.

Geremie R. Barmé, “The Garden of Perfect Brightness, A Life in Ruins,” East Asian History 11 (June 1996): 111-158.

Ronald Lewcock, Early Nineteenth Century Architecture in South Africa: A Study of the Interaction of Two Cultures, 1795-1837(Cape Town: A.A. Balkema, 1963).

Alex Bremner, “Nation and Empire in the Government Architecture of mid-Victorian London: The Foreign and India Office Reconsidered,” The Historical Journal 48.3 (September 2005): 703-742.

 

Background

C.A. Bayly, The Birth of the Modern World 1780-1914(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004), Chap. 6, "Nation, Empire, and Ethnicity 1800-1860," 199-243 (esp. 199-226).

 

8. Industry and Morality

 

Primary (required)

Augustus Welby Pugin, Contrasts: Or, A Parallel Between the Noble Edifices of the Middle Ages and Similar Buildings of the Present Day [1836], 2nd ed. (Edinburgh: John Grant, 1898), 1-59; see also plates beginning on p. 102.

John Ruskin, “The Nature of the Gothic,” in J. D. Rosenberg, ed., The Genius of John Ruskin: Selections from the Writings (1863), 170-196.

 

Secondary (required)

Robin Evans, “Rookeries and Model Dwellings,” Translation from Drawing to Building (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997), 92-114.

Michael J. Lewis, The Gothic Revival (New York: Thames & Hudson, 2002),13-57, 81-93, 105-23.

 

Secondary (for reference)

Deborah E.B. Weiner, "The Architecture of Victorian Philanthropy: The Settlement House as Manorial Residence, Art History 13, No. 13 (June 1990).

Richard Wittman, “Space, Networks, and the Saint-Simonians,” Grey Room 40 (Summer 2010): 24-49.

G.A. Bremner, Imperial Gothic and High Anglican Culture in the British Empire 1840-1870 (London: Paul Mellon Center for Studies in British Art, 2013).

Barry Bergdoll, European Architecture 1750-1890 (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), Chap. 3, “Experimental Architecture: Landscape Gardens and Reform Institutions."

Nicholas Bullock and James Read, The Movement for Housing Reform in Germany and France, 1840-1914 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985).

Dana Simmons, "Social Reform," The Vital Minimum: Need, Science, and Politics in Modern France (Chicago: University of Chicago, 2015).

Leonardo Benevolo, History of Modern Architecture, Volume 1: The Tradition of Modern Architecture [1960], trans. H. J. Landry (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1977), “The Debate on the Industrial Town,” 127-187.

Anson Rabinbach, “Transcendental Materialism: The Primacy of Arbeitskraft,” The Human Motor: Energy, Fatigue, and the Origins of Modernity (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1990), 45-68

Dolores Hayden, Chap. 2, “Socialism in Modern Villages,” The Grand Domestic Revolution: A History of Feminist Designs for American Homes, Neighborhoods and Cities (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981), 32-53.

Vidler, Anthony. “The Scenes of the Street: Transformations in Ideal and Reality, 1750-1871,” in Stanford Anderson, ed. On Streets (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1991).

Françoise Choay, “Pre-Urbanism and Urbanism: The Progressivist Model,” in The Modern City (New York: G. Braziller, 1970), 31-102

Barry Bergdoll, European Architecture 1750-1890 (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), Chap. 2, “What is Enlightenment? The City and the Public, 1750-89.”

Leonardo Benevolo, History of Modern Architecture, Volume 1: The Tradition of Modern Architecture [1960], trans. H. J. Landry (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1977), Section 1, “Birth and Development of the Industrial Town,” 1-124.

 

Background

C. A. Bayly, The Birth of the Modern World 1780-1914(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004), Chap. 9, “Empires of Religion,” 325-365.

 

10. Capital, Labor and Gender

 

Primary (required)

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Manifesto of the Communist Party (1848).

Catherine Beecher and Harriet Beecher Stowe, The American Woman’s Home: A Guide to the Formation and Maintenance of Economical, Healthful, and Christian Homes (New York and Boston: J. B. Ford and H. A. Brown, 1869), Required: Chap. 1, “The Christian Family,” 17-22; Chap. 2, “ A Christian House,” 23-42; Recommended: Chap. 3, “A Healthful Home,” 43- 58; Chap. 6, “Home Decoration,” 84-103; Chap. 19, “Economy of Time and Expenses,” 247-254.

 

Secondary (required)

Dolores Hayden, Chap. 3 “Feminism and Model Households,” The Grand Domestic Revolution: A History of Feminist Designs for American Homes, Neighborhoods and Cities (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981) 54-65.

Thomas Dublin, “Women, Work, and Protest in the Early Lowell Mills: ‘The Oppressing Hand of Avarice Would Enslave Us,’” Labor History 16, no. 1 (1975): 99-116.

 

Secondary (for reference)

Friedrich Engels, The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844 (London: Allen and Unwin, 1950), Chap. 3, 30-87.

Anne Friedberg, “The Passage from Arcade to Cinema,” including “Passage II,” Chapter 2, in Window Shopping; Cinema and the Postmodern (Berkeley: The University of California Press, 1993). 

Roger N. Holden, “The Architect and the Lancashire Cotton Industry, 1850-1914: The Example of Stott & Sons,” Textile History 23, no. 2 (1992), 243-257.

Annmarie Adams, Chapter 4, “Childbirth at Home,” in Architecture in the Family Way: Doctors, Houses and Women, 1870-1900 (Montreal: McGill’s-Queens University Press, 1996).

William Cronon, Nature’s Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West (New York: W.W. Norton, 1991), Chap. 3, “Pricing the Future: Grain,” 97-147.

Joanna Merwood-Salisbury, Chicago 1890: The Skyscraper and the Modern City Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009), “Chapter 1, Western Architecture: The Tall Office Building as Regional Type," 13-37.

 

Background (recommended)

Jürgen Osterhammel, The Transformation of the World: A Global History of the Nineteenth Century, trans. Patrick Camiller (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014), Chap. XIII, “Labor: The Physical Basis of Culture,” 673-709.

 

10. Machines and Meaning

 

Primary (required)

Louis Sullivan, “The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered,” Lippincott's Magazine (March 23, 1896), 403-409.

William Morris, News from Nowhere: Or, An Epoch of Rest, being Some Chapters from a Utopian Romance, (Hammersmith: Kelmscott Press, 1893), Chaps. 1-3, 1-30.

(skim/browse) Walter Benjamin, [Iron Construction], Convolute F, The Arcades Project, trans. Howard Eiland and Kevin McLaughlin (Cambrige, MA: The Belknap Press, 1999)

 

Secondary (required)

Joanna Merwood-Salisbury, Chicago 1890: The Skyscraper and the Modern City (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009), Chaps. 2, “Louis Sullivan’s Democratic Architecture and the Labor Movement,” 38-54.

Thomas P. Hughes, “Berlin: The Coordination of Technology and Politics” in Networks of Power: Electrification in Western Society (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983), 175-200.

 

Secondary (for reference)

Wolfgang Schivelbusch, The Railway Journey: Trains and Travel in the 19th Century (New York: Urizen Books, 1979).

Siegfried Giedion, Mechanization Takes Command (New York: Oxford University Press, 1948), 

Sigfried Giedion, Building in France, Building in Iron, Building in Ferroconcrete [1928] (Los Angeles: Getty Center for the History of Art and the Humanities, 1995)

Barry Bergdoll, European Architecture 1750-1890 (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), Chap. 7, “New Technology and Architectural Form, 1851-90,” 207-240.

Norton Wise, “Architectures for Steam” in The Architecture of Science, ed. Peter Galison and Emily Thompson (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999), 107-140.

Joanna Merwood-Salisbury, Chicago 1890: The Skyscraper and the Modern City (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009), Chaps. 1, “Western Architecture: The Tall Office Building as a Regional Type,” 13-37.

 

Background (recommended)

Jürgen Osterhammel, The Transformation of the World: A Global History of the Nineteenth Century, trans. Patrick Camiller (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014), Chap. XIV, “Networks: Extension, Density, Holes,” 710-743.

Sven Beckert, Empire of Cotton: A Global History (New York: Knopf, 2014).

 

11. Cosmopolitanism and Expertise

 

Primary (required)

Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le -Duc, The Habitations of Man in All Ages (1875), trans. Benjamin Bucknall (Boston: J.R. Osgood & Co., 1876), 1-26, 377-394.

Gottfried Semper, “The Four Elements of Architecture” [1851, excerpts], in Semper, The Four Elements of Architecture and Other Writings, trans H. Mallgrave and W. Hermann (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989), 101-111.

(browse/skim) Banister Fletcher, A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method (London and New York, various editions beginning in 1896)

https://archive.org/details/historyofarcocad00fletuoft

 

Secondary (required)

On Barak, “En Route,” On Time: Technology and Temporality in Modern Egypt (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2013): 21-52.

Zeynep Çelik, Displaying the Orient: Architecture of Islam at Nineteenth-Century World's Fairs (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1992). Introduction, 1-15.

 

Secondary (for reference)

Pieter Van Wesemael, Architecture of Instruction and Delight. A Socio-Historical Analysis of World Exhibitions as a Didactic Phenomenon (1798-1851-1970) (Rotterdam, 010 Publishers, 2001), pp. 219-284.

Paul Greenhalgh, Ephemeral Vistas: The Expositions Universelles, Great Exhibitions and World's Fairs, 1851-1939 (Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1991)..

Paul Rabinow, French Modern: Norms and Forms of the Social Environment (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989), Chap. 9, “Techno-Cosmopolitanism: Governing Morocco,” 277-319.

Janet Abu-Lughod, Cairo: 1001 Years of the City Victorious (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1971), Chap. 7, “The Origins of Modern Cairo,” 98-117.

Jonathan M. Reynolds, The Formation of a Japanese Architectural Profession, in The Artist as Professional in Japan (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press 2004).

Cherie Wendelken, “The Tectonics of Japanese Style: Architect and Carpenter in the Late Meiji Period,” Art Journal 55:3 (1996).

Alain Schnapp, “On the Rejection of the Natural History of Man” in The Discovery of the Past (London: British Museum Press, 1996), 221-272.

Hanna Lerski, “Josiah Conder’s Bank of Japan, Tokyo,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (Oct 1979).

David B. Stewart, The Making of Modern Japanese Architecture: 1868 to the Present (Tokyo and New York: Kodansha International, 1987).

William H. Coaldrake, Architecture and Authority in Japan (New York: Routledge, 1996), Chap. 8, “Building the Meiji State,” 208-250.

Charles Davis, “Viollet-le-Duc and the Body: The Metaphorical Integrations of Race and Style in Structural Rationalism,” Architectural Research Quarterly 14, no. 4 (2010): 341-348.

Martin Bressani, Architecture and the Historical Imagination: Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, 1814-1879 (Burlington, VT and Surrey, UK: Ashgate, 2014), Chap. 10, “Instinct and Race,” 333-380; Chap. 11, “Style,” 381-406.

Gülsüm Baydar Nalbantoğlu, “Toward Postcolonial Openings: Rereading Sir Banister Fletcher’s History of Architecture,” Assemblage 35 (April 1998): 6-17.

Eric Hobsbawm, The Age of Empire 1875-1914 [1987] (New York: Vintage Books, 1989), Chap. 3, 5-6.

Nicholas Pevsner, “James Fergusson,” in Some Architectural Writers of the Nineteenth Century (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1972), 238-251.

David Watkin, The Rise of Architectural History (London: Architectural Press, 1980), Chap. III, “English Antiquarians and the Gothic Revival," 49-93, (esp. 56-93).

Sarah Allaback, “Louisa Tuthill, Ithiel Town, and the Beginnings of Architectural History Writing in America,” in Kenneth Hafertepe and James F. O’Gorman, eds., American Architects and Their Books to 1848 (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2001), 199-215.

 

Background

C.A. Bayly, The Birth of the Modern World 1780-1914 (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004) Chap. 11, “The Reconstitution of Social Hierarchies,” 395-431.

(recommended) Jürgen Osterhammel, The Transformation of the World: A Global History of the Nineteenth Century, trans. Patrick Camiller (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014), Chap. VI, “Cities: European Models and Worldwide Creativity,” 241-321.

 

12. Metropolis and Empire

 

Primary (required)

Daniel H. Burnham and Edward H. Bennett, Plan of Chicago, Prepared Under the Direction of the Commercial Club During the Years MCMVI, MCMVII, and MCMVIII, ed. Charles Moore (Chicago: The Commercial Club, 1909), Chaps. 1-3, 1-42.

Ebenezer Howard, To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform (London: Swan Sonnenschein, 1898), “Introduction,” 1-11; Chap. 1, “The Town-Country Magnet,” 12-19, Chap. 2, “The Revenue of the Garden City, and how it is obtained—The Agricultural Estate,” 20-19; Chap. 3, “The revenue of the Garden City—Town Estate,” 31-35; Chap. 4, “The Revenue of the Garden City—General Observations on Its Expenditure,” 36-50; Chap. 9, “Administration—A Bird’s Eye View,” 91-93.

(browse/skim) Henry G. Lyons, The Cadastral Survey of Egypt 1892-1907 (Cairo: National Printing Department, 1908), Introduction, 1-12; also recommended: Chap. 10, “General Account of the Cadastral Survey, 1897-1907,” 123-149.

 

Secondary (required)

Carl E. Schorske, Fin-de-siècle Vienna: Politics and Culture (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1980), Chap. 2, “The Ringstrasse, Its Critics, and the Birth of Urban Modernism,” 24-115.

Deborah L. Silverman, “Art Nouveau, Art of Darkness: African Lineages of Belgian Modernism,” Part I, West 86th, 18, no. 2 (Fall-Winter 2011): 139-181.

 

Secondary (for reference)

David Harvey, Chapters 5-7, “Money Credit and Finance,” “Rent and the Propertied Interest,” “The State”, in Paris, Capital of Modernity (New York: Routledge, 2003).

John Summerson, The London Building World of the Eighteen Sixties (London: Thames and Hudson, 1973).

Goran Therborn, Chapter 4, “National Foundations: Nationalizing Colonialism,” in Cities of Power: The Urban, the National, The Popular, the Global (New York: Verso, 2017)

Kurt Forster, "Schinkel's Panoramic Planning of Central Berlin," Modulus 16 (New York: Rizzoli, 1983), 63-77.

Margareth da Silva Pereira, “The Time of the Capitals: Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo: Words, Actors and Plans," in Planning Latin America’s Capital Cities, 1850-1950, ed. Arturo Almandoz (New York: Routledge, 2002), 75-108.

Carol McMichael Reese, “The Urban Development of Mexico City, 1850-1930,” in Arturo Almandoz, Planning Latin America’s Capital Cities, 1850-1950 (New York Routledge, 2002), 139-169.

Ramón Gutiérrez, “Buenos Aires, A Great European City,” in Arturo Almandoz, Planning Latin America’s Capital Cities, 1850-1950 (New York Routledge, 2002), 45-74.

Françoise Choay, “Pre-Urbanism and Urbanism: The Culturalist Model,” in The Modern City (New York: G. Braziller, 1970), 102-107.

Yasemin Avci, “The Application of Tanzimat in the Desert: The Bedouins and the Creation of a New Town in Southern Palestine (1860-1914),” Middle Eastern Studies 45, no. 6 (November 2009): 969-983.

Jens Hanssen, “‘Your Beirut Is on My Desk’: Ottomanizing Beirut under Sultan Abdülhamid (1876-1909)" in Peter G. Rowe and Hashim Sarkis, eds. Projecting Beirut: Episodes in the Construction and Reconstruction of a Modern City (Prestel: Munich, 1998), 41-67.

Bergdoll, Barry. European Architecture 1750-1890 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), Chap. 8, “The City Transformed, 1848-90,” 241-267.

 

Background

C.A. Bayly, The Birth of the Modern World 1780-1914(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004), Chap. 7, “Myths and Technologies of the Modern State,” 247-283; Conclusion, “The Great Acceleration, c. 1890-1914”, 451-487.

(recommended) Jürgen Osterhammel, The Transformation of the World: A Global History of the Nineteenth Century, trans. Patrick Camiller (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014), Chap. VIII, “Imperial Systems and Nation-States: The Persistence of Empires,” 392-468.

 

 

Appendix

 

Buildings and Projects

[NOTE: Dates given for Buildings and Projects are normally completion dates]

 

1743 John Wood, Bristol Exchange, Bristol, England

1745   Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Le Carceri d’Invenzione (1745, 1761)

1751   George Dance, St. Luke’s Lunatic Hospital, London

1752 Drayton Hall, Charleston, South Carolina

1756   Jacques-Germain Soufflot, Ste. Geneviève, Paris (1756-1790)

1758 John Wood Sr. and John Wood Jr., King’s Circus, Bath, England

1768   Ange-Jacques Gabriel, Le Petit Trianon, Versailles (1763-1768)

1768   George Dance, Newgate Prison, London

1769   Pierre Patte, Project for an Ideal Street

1772   Diderot and d'Alembert, Enyclopédie, Agriculture and Rural Economy

1772   Richard Payne Knight, Downton Castle, Herefordshire

1774   Jacques Gondoin, School of Surgery, Paris (1769-1774)

1777   James Wyatt; Robert Adams, Home House, London, England

1777   T.F. Pritchard, Bridge over the Severn at Coalbrookdale

1777   Robert Adam, Culzean Castle, Scotland (1777-1790)

1778   Claude-Nicolas Ledoux, Salines, Arc en Senans (1774-1778)

1784   Etienne-Louis Boullée, Cenotaph for Newton

1785   Thomas Jefferson, Land Ordinance for the colonization of Western territories

1785   Bernard Poyet, Radial Hospital Plan

1785   Etienne-Louis Boullée, Project for a National Library

1786   David Dale and Robert Owen, New Lanark Cotton Mills, New Lanark

1787   Shaker Communities

1789   Ledoux, Barrière d’Enfer, Paris (1785-1789)

1789   Langhans, Brandenburg Gate, Berlin

1790   L’Enfant and Ellicot, Plan Washington, D.C.

1790   John Soane, Bank of England, London

1791   Jeremy Bentham, Panopticon

1792   Horace Walpole, Strawberry Hill, Middlesex (1749-1792)

1793   Thornton, Latrobe, Bulfinch, et al, United States Capitol, Washington, D.C.

1793   Jefferson, Thornton, Hallet, Latrobe, et al. White House, Washington, D.C.

1794   Durand and Thibault, Project for a Temple of Equality submitted in the Competitions of the Year II

1796   Competition for a Monument to Frederick the Great, Berlin

1797   William Latrobe, Virginia State Penitentiary

1798   Charles Bulfinch, Massachusetts State House, Boston

1800   William Jessop, West India Docks, London, England

1800   Garden of Perfect Brightness, Beijing (c. 1800)

1801   Benjamin Henry Latrobe, Bank of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia

1802   John Wood, James Wyatt Liverpool Town Hall, Liverpool, England

1806   Bélanger, Iron dome, Wheat market, Paris [1763 Le Camus de Mézières]

1806   Benjamin Henry Latrobe, Latrobe Gate (Main Gate) Washington Navy Yard, Washington D.C.

1806   Napoléon’s grand projects: Temple of Glory (Madeleine), Vendôme Column, Arc de Triomphe, Paris

1809   Thomas Jefferson, Monticello, Virginia

1810   Charles Bulfinch, Boylston Market, Boston

1811   John Nash, Regent Street, London (begins)

1811   Commissioners’ Plan for New York City

1812   Benjamin Henry Latrobe, Davidge Hall, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

1813   James Wyatt, Fonthill Abbey, Wiltshire England

1815   Benjamin Henry Latrobe, Frederick Graff, Fairmount Water Works, Philadelphia [1799-1822]

1818   John Nash, Royal Pavilion, Brighton

1821   Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Schauspielhaus, Berlin

1821   Benjamin Henry Latrobe, Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Baltimore, Maryland

1822   Johann Carl Ludwig Engel, Senate, Helsinki (1818-1822)

1823   Lowell Mills, Lowell, Massachusetts (open)

1823   Peter Nobile, Theseustempel (Temple of Theseus, museum), Vienna (1820-1823)

1823   Robert Smirke, British Museum, London

1823   Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Altes Museum, Berlin

1824 Robert Owen, New Harmony, Indiana (1824-1827)

1825   Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Schloss Charlottenhof, Sanssouci, Potsdam

1825   Benjamin Wright et al, Erie Canal, New York State (1817-1825)

1826   Leo von Klenze, Alte Pinakothek, Munich

1827   Thomas Jefferson, University of Virginia (1817-1827)

1829   John Haviland, Eastern State Penitentiary

1829   Karl Ivanovich Rossi, Arch of the Winter Palace, St. Petersburg (1819-1829)

1830   Leo von Klenze, Walhalla, near Regensberg (begins)

1830   Museumsinsel (from the Altesmuseum to the Pergamonmuseum)

1831   Henry Dearborn, Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, Massachusetts

1833   Gaspard Riche de Prony, Description hydrographique et historique des marais Pontins

1833   Félix Duban, Ecole des Beaux Arts remodel, Paris (begins)

1833   Rohault de Fleury, Greenhouses, Jardin des Plantes, Paris

1834   Victor Considerant, Phalanstery (after Fourier)

1834   Leo von Klenze, Glyptothek, Munich (1816-1834)

1834   William Strickland, Merchants’ Exchange, Philadelphia (1832-1834)

1835   Schinkel, Bauakademie, Berlin (1832-1835

1836   Pugin and Barry, Houses of Parliament, London (design begins)

1836   I.K. Brunel, Clifton Bridge over the Avon, Bristol

1836   Robert Mills, Washington Monument (original design), Washington, DC

1836   Robert Mills, Patent Office Building, Washington, DC

1837   Heinrich Hübsch, Pump Room, Baden-Baden

1838   Heinrich Hübsch, Experiments with vaulting forms

1838   Ludwig Persius, Glienicke Engine House, Potsdam (1836-1838)

1838   Jacques-Ignace Hittorf, Rotonde des Panoramas, Paris

1839   Hans Christian Hansen and Theophilos Eduard Hansen, National Library, University and Academy, Athens (1839-1891)

1840   British Ordinance Surveyors’ Drawings (1789-1840)

1842   Andrew Jackson Downing, Cottage Residences

1842   Andrew Jackson Davis, United States Customs House, New York

1845   Augustus Welby Pugin, Scarisbrick Hall, Lancashire (1837-1845)

1846   James Renwick Jr., Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC

1846   Jesse Hartley and Phillip Hardwick, Albert Dock, Liverpool

1847   Oneida Perfectionists

1847   Frederick Fiebig, Panorama of Calcutta

1847   François Duquesny, Gare de l’Est, Paris

1848   Maximilian of Bavaria, competition for a new style of architecture

1849   John Roebling, Delaware Aqueduct, Lackawaxen, Pennysylvania

1849   William Butterfield, All Saints, London

1851   Saltaire, Titus Salt

1851   Joseph Paxton, Crystal Palace, London

1852   Thomas U. Walter, Hospital for the Insane of the Army and the Navy, Washington D.C.

1853   Andrew Jackson Davis, Llewellyn Park, West Orange, New Jersey

1855   Amana Inspirationists

1855   Victor Baltard, Les Halles, Paris [1852-1855]

1855   Universal Exposition, Paris

1856   Samuel Angell, Clothworkers’ Hall, London

1857   Victor Baltard and Félix-Emmanuel Callet, Les Halles, Paris (1853-1857)

1858   Henri Labrouste, Bibliothèque Ste. Genieviève (1838-1850)

1860   Deane, Woodward, Skidmore, Oxford Museum, Oxfor

1859   Old Slave Mart, Charleston, South Carolina

1859   André Godin and E. André, Familistère, Guise (begun 1859)

1860   William Morris and Philip Webb, Red House

1860   Deane, Woodward, Skidmore, Oxford Museum, Oxford

1860s  Frederick Law Olmsted, Emerald Necklace, Boston

1862   Plan of Earl Manver’s Estate, Laxton and Moorhouse

1863   Olmsted & Vaux, Central Park, New York

1863   George Gilbert Scott, Akroydon (1861-1863)

1863   Charles Garnier, Opera House, Paris

1864   Antoine-Nicolas-Louis Bailly, Tribunal de Commerce, Paris (1858-1864)

1865   A. H. Stott, Houldsworth Mill, Reddish, Lancashire

1867   Universal Exposition, Paris 

1867   New York Tenement Acts

1868   Alfred Waterhouse, Natural History Museum, London

1868   George Gilbert Scott and Matthew Digby Wyatt, Foreign Office and India Office, Whitehall, London (1861-1868)

1868   James Gamble, William Morris, and Edward Poynter, South Kensington Dining Room, London

1868   Henri Labrouste, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris (1859-1868)

1868   Waterhouse, Town Hall, Manchester

1869   Railway in Egypt (1854-1869)

1869   Suez Canal (1859-1869)

1869   Avoscani and Rossi, Khedivial Opera House, Cairo

1870   Charles Barry, Houses of Parliament, London (1840-1870)

1870   Richard Morris Hunt, Stuyvesant Apartments, New York City

1870   Haussmann’s Paris (1859-1870)

1871   Jules Saulnier, Meunier Factory and Model Town, Noisel-sur-Marne

1872   Furness and Hewitt, Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts

1872   Vienna Ring (1859-1872)

1873   Francis Fowke and Henry Cole, South Kensington Museum, London (1863-1873)

1873   George Gilbert Scott and Matthew Digby Wyatt, Foreign Office, London (1856-1873)

1875   Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux, Riverside, Illinois

1876   Frank Furness and George Hewitt, Centennial National Bank, Philadelphia

1876   Frank Furness and George Hewitt, Brazilian Section – Main Exhibition Building, Centennial Exposition, Philadelphia

1876   Frederick Law Olmsted, Mount Royal, Montreal, Quebec

1877   Henry Hobson Richardson, Trinity Church, Boston (1872-1877)

1877   A. de Serres and Eiffel Office, Western Railway Station, Budapest (1874-1877)

1878   Universal Exposition, Paris

1878   William Ware and Henry Van Brunt, Memorial Hall at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (1865 – 1878)

1879   Frank Furness and George Hewitt, Provident Life and Trust, Philadelphia

1880   Henry Hobson Richardson, Frederick Law Olmsted, Calvert Vaux, State Asylum for the Insane (Richardson Olmsted Complex), Buffalo, New York

1880   Henry Hobson Richardson, Thomas Crane Library, Quincy, Massachusetts

1880s S. S. Berman, Town of Pullman, Chicago

1881   George B. Post, Produce Exchange, New York (1881-1885)

1882   Alexander Vallaury, Academy of Fine Arts, Istanbul

1883   John Roebling, Brooklyn Bridge, New York

1884   Otto Wagner, State Bank, Vienna (1882-1884)

1884   Frank Furness and George Hewitt, National Bank of the Republic, Philadelphia

1884   William Le Baron Jenney, Home Insurance Building, Chicago

1884   Henry Hobson Richardson, Allegheny Courthouse, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

1884   George B. Post, New York Produce Exchange, New York City

1885   George B. Post, New York Cotton Exchange, New York City

1885   Henry Hobson Richardson, Marshall Field Wholesale Store, Chicago

1886   Daniel Burnham and John Wellborn Root, Rookery Building, Chicago (1885-1886)

1888   William Owen, Port Sunlight, England

1889   Gustave Eiffel, Eiffel Tower, Exposition Universelle, Paris

1889   Dutret, Galérie des Machines, Exposition Universelle, Paris

1889   Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler, Auditorium Building, Chicago

1889   Exposition Universelle, Paris

 

1890   Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler, K.A.M. Synagogue (Pilgrim Baptist Church), Chicago

1890   Daniel Burnham and John Wellborn Root, Chronicle Building, San Francisco

1890   Alfred Messel, Sickingenstrasse, Berlin

1891   Alexander Vallaury, Imperial Museum, Istanbul

1891   Frank Furness and George Hewitt, University of Pennsylvania Library, Philadelphia

1891   Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler, Wainwright Building, St. Louis, Missouri

1892   Frank Furness, Broad Street Station Pennsylvania Railroad, Philadelphia

1892   Daniel Burnham and John Wellborn Root, Monadnock Building, Chicago (1889-1892)

1893   Bournville, Birmingham

1893   Daniel Burnham, John Wellborn Root, Frederick Law Olmsted, World’s Columbian Exposition, Chicago

1894   Louis Sullivan, Guaranty Building, Buffalo

1895   Daniel Burnham and John Wellborn Root, Reliance Building Chicago (1890-1895)

1895   Richard Morris Hunt, Metropolitan Museum of Art (addition), New York

1896   Charles F. Voysey, Sturgis House, near Guilford

1896   Alexander Vallaury, Ottoman Bank, Istanbul

1897   Otto Wagner, Vienna underground stations (1894-1897)

1897   Charles F. McKim, William R. Mead, Stanford White, Columbia University Campus, New York

1899   Peter Behrens et al, Darmstadt Artists’ Colony

1899   Louis Sullivan, Carson Pirie Scott & Co. department store, Chicago (begun)

1902   Daniel Burnham, Flatiron Building, New York City

1902   Ludwig Hoffmann, Various bathhouses, Berlin (1897-1902)

1903   Hendrik-Petrus Berlage, Stock Exchange, Amsterdam (1898-1903)

1903   Daniel Burnham, Union Station, Washington, DC

1904   Frank Lloyd Wright, Larkin Building, Buffalo (1903-1904)

1904   George B. Post, Stock Exchange, New York (1901-1904)

1905   Raymond Unwin and Barry Parker, Hampstead Garden Suburb, London

1906   Grand Central Terminal, New York (1871-1906)

1906   W. K. Firminger, Thacker’s Guide to Calcutta

1910   Pennsylvania Station, Charles F. McKim, William R. Mead, Stanford White, New York

1912   Walter Burley Griffin, Canberra (plan 1912)

1913   Edwin Lutyens, New Delhi (plan 1913)

1914   Eliel Saarinen, Railway Station, Helsinki (1904-1914)

 

 

Documents

 

1721   Johann Fischer von Erlach, Entwurff einer historischen Architektur (1721-1742)

1753   James Dawkins and Robert Wood, The Ruins of Palmyra

1758   Julien-David Le Roy, Ruins of the Most Beautiful Monuments of Greece

1762   James Stuart and Nicholas Revett, The Antiquities of Athens (1762-1816)

1765   Giambattista Piranesi, Thoughts on Architecture

1779   James Rendell, A Bengal Atlas

1782   James Rendell, Memoir of a Map of Hindoostan

1795   Étienne-Louis Boullée, Architecture, Essay on Art

1796   Gaspard Riche de Prony, Nouvelle architecture hydraulique

1848   Louisa C. Tuthill, History of Architecture from the Earliest Times; Its Present Condition in Europe and the United States

1849   J. S. Buckingham, National Evils and Practical Remedies. With the Plan of a Model Town

1855   James Fergusson, The Illustrated Handbook of Architecture

1856   Owen Jones, The Grammar of Ornament

1857   Calvert Vaux, Villas and Cottages: A Series of Design for Execution in the United States

1872   Usul-i Mimari-i Osmani (Ottoman Architecture) (in Turkish, French, and German but no English)

1889   Camillo Sitte, City Planning According to Artistic Principles

1896   Banister Fletcher, A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method

1899   Auguste Choisy, Histoire de l’architecture, Vols. 1 & 2

1904   Auguste Choisy, L’art de bâtir chez les Égyptiens

 

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